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the crack tip plastic zone at sif was also considered. the crack tip plastic zone is a small surface layer that evolves in the region near the crack tip. the shrinkage caused by the crack and the plastic deformation of the crack tip should be considered in the plastic zone. the crack tip plastic zone was calculated by integrating the plastic strain from the crack tip to the position of the crack tip. this was performed using a numerical integration approach. this study used the crack tip plastic zone only for the crack tip location optimisation process, and the crack tip plastic zone was removed at the end of the crack tip location optimisation process.
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all this brings me to make a case for using the sif to evaluate the effect of the initial compression. i am sure that all of us have experienced multiple occasions of similar initial compression due to poor preparation of the inner wall surface of the shaft or machine bearings. for instance, excess grease is sometimes used to fill the bearing clearance and load the shaft during operation; the shaft is often tightened by using a thread-on shaft collar; and the bearing rollers and shaft are often clamped by a tooling compound. when these practices are applied, the shaft is loaded, often to a level far greater than its elastic limit. because the load is applied eccentrically, the initial compression increases the edge shear stress at the edge of the o-ring and the material tends to crack. as shown in figure 24, the maximum shear stress value is directly proportional to the initial compression, while the equivalent elastic strain value increases with increasing initial compression. as the initial compression increases, cracks also appear on the outer edge of the o-ring. if the initial compression is too high, the cracks may grow and eventually cause the failure of the seal. obviously, the sif should be used to evaluate the initial compression. in this study, the sif is calculated using the expanded fifth-order williams equation, and the maximum shear stress value obtained at 2400 n is 658.84 mpam0.5, while the equivalent elastic strain is 0.5103 mpa. therefore, the initial compression of 240 n can be defined as the limit of allowable stress.